Truth: Major Contentions

Lure of the Will to Believe

  • Our declarations swing between too-eager beliefs and too-ready skepticism.
  • William James advises commitment in the face of doubt because we cannot expect certainty.
  • Karl Popper advises avoiding commitment without convincing evidence.
  • The question is always this one: “How much evidence and of what kind is sufficient?”
  • We are unlikely to find a consensual answer because we cannot agree on the nature of evidence.

What Makes It True?

  • Every declaration about truth or goodness requires a warrant, a reason the speaker thinks it true.
  • The nature of warrant depends upon consensually defining terms like fact, opinion, and belief.
  • The use of authority to warrant truth claims has collapsed, which has most damaged moral declarations because no comparable warrant has replaced authority.
  • Modernism relies on two axioms of commitment: individual rational agency and universal reasoning.
  • Modernism’s greatest achievement is empirical science, which has furthered the erosion of authority.
  • Excepting empirical science, postmodernism dominates contemporary preferences involving goodness; it rejects universal reasoning but ardently defends individual freedom.
  • We have no means to arbitrate our axiomatic disagreements.

Lacking Definition

  • In premodern axioms of commitment, all warrants ultimately rely on a correspondence epistemology: the assumption that the truth of declarations is publicly accessible.
  • The ultimate premodern warrant was authority.
  • In modern epistemology, correspondence declarations are justified by five warrants: empirical, expertise, competence, undistilled experience, and a remnant authority.
  • Correspondence truth claims assume the standard of a preponderance of evidence.
  • Twentieth century postmodernism proposes a different epistemology, a private one based upon the coherence of already-accepted truths.
  • This evolution has most seriously challenged public consensus on goodness and beauty, which have been most privatized by the failures of authority.

Tangled Terms

  • Correspondence justifications assume a public warrant while coherence justifications assume a private warrant.
  • The terms we use may or may not indicate which axiom of commitment our declarations rely upon.
  • Blurring these axioms increases freedom while it decreases verifiability.
  • The axioms of commitment we employ in our declarations dictate which warrants we will accept, but these we vary these erratically.

Eskimos Have Two Words for Snow

  • The terms we now use to imply our warrants have no consensual meaning.
  • Words like opinion, fact, belief, and judgment are potentially powerful spurs to consensus about warrant.
  • To self-justify our understanding, we often resort to filtering declarations by the simple principle of non-contradiction.
  • It is absurdly easy to dismiss other persons’ declarations as private ones today, which spares us the trouble of examining their truth.

The Tyranny of Rationality

  • Given the contemporary moral disarray, we must seek consensual warrants.
  • Universal reason is the best available option, but it can only succeed if founded upon modernist warrants of individual agency.
  • It is reinforced by current neurological research.
  • Its exemplar is empirical science.
  • The perceptual wall is a hindrance to accepting universal reasoning.
  • Kantian categories establish common, inescapably rational, interpreters of experience.
  • Judgments of truth and judgments of goodness face different obstacles.
  • Truth claims are inescapably mimetic and therefore inescapably rational regardless of the axiom underwriting their warrants..
  • Correspondence judgments attempt to mirror reality despite the perceptual wall. Coherence beliefs attempt to avoid contradiction.
  • Categorizations and conceptualizations are inescapable products of experience and are inescapably rational.
  • Because judgments of truth and of goodness are invariably linked, the temptation of premature closure must always be resisted.
  • The act of severance isolates judgments of truth from judgments of goodness.

What Counts as Justification?

  • Correspondence truth claims are publicly defensible judgments about individual elements of external reality.
  • Coherence truth claims are aggregates of private truths that do not contradict according to whatever standard of rationality the thinker chooses to employ.
  • In any conversation, we may not be able to identify the axiom or warrants persons assume in their truth claims, so we may easily discount the declarations they make.
  • Correspondence claims in decreasing order of reliability depend upon empiricism, expertise, competence, undistilled experience, or authority for their warrant.
  • Coherence claims rely upon the virtual circle, whose sole criterion is non-contradiction.

Pure, Poor Systems of Knowledge

  • The axioms of truth claims appeal either to experience or external reality.
  • Coherence thinks the perceptual wall impenetrable while correspondence considers it an impediment to certainty.
  • The most reliable correspondence proofs minimize experience to maximize reasoning upon it.
  • The coherence proof maximizes individual experience and makes reasoning idiosyncratic.
  • If personal certainty is the criterion, correspondence must always bow to coherence, but if public verifiability is the criterion, the order is reversed.
  • Coherentism privileges the privacy of experience and its formative influence on reasoning.
  • The uncertainty of correspondence warrants coupled with the triumphs of empiricism tempt contemporary declarations toward scientism.
  • Scientism seeks empirical warrants for goodness claims, which is an impossible pursuit.

Better Blended Systems of Knowledge

  • For a correspondentist, judgment and opinion mark different kinds of declarations, but for a coherentist, they serve equally well to validate the virtual circle.
  • The meaning of fact, opinion, and belief differs for correspondence and coherence.
  • Axioms must be aligned rationally to avoid contradiction or error in private judgments and dismissal or discord in public ones, but there are many more ways to do this incorrectly than correctly.
  • Public declarations are necessarily correspondence ones, so any claim to public moral prescription must satisfy  correspondence warrants.

Facts are Fluxy Things

  • Correspondence and coherence dispute the nature of fact.
  • Empirical science now provides our clearest justification of facticity, but the scientific method only succeeds because it severely limits the kinds of experiences it investigates.
  • Mathematical identities are not facts, nor are analytic, a priori truth claims.
  • Postmodernism views facts as the products of private consciousness, allowing everyone to posit private facts.
  • Scientific facts and the “facts of experience” are incompatible; the scientific method attempts to minimize the distortions of private experience.
  • Science is composed of more than facticity.
  • Scientism is a belief system that discounts any declaration not founded upon empiricism; because science cannot “see” any goodness issues other than immediate utility, it regards moral claims as white noise.
  • Empiricism and postmodernism are axiomatically hostile, yet they share a disdain of “moral facts.”
  • Because it is composed in part of private desire, no belief can be a fact.
  • Though all sides appeal to facticity as evidence of indubitability, no consensus on the nature of “fact” now exists, so except in scientific research, the term has almost no meaning.
  • I propose defining fact as “a datum of experience” which is a broadly inclusive definition that privileges private perception.
  • I propose that this inclusive definition of fact be matched to a more exclusive meaning of judgment as a publicly defensible declaration.
  • No belief can be a judgment because belief is not a public warrant.
  • Empiricism, expertise, and competence are built upon replicable judgments.

 The Limits of Empirical Science

  • The meaning of “science” has evolved to mean a specific kind of judgment based upon the replicability and communicability of very limited experiences.
  • Science only gradually became disentangled from religion, philosophy, and expertise.
  • The collapse of religious authority in the Reformation required an alternative mode of justification.
  • Over the course of the nineteenth century, empirical science became standardized, subdivided, and professionalized.
  • Empirical science affirms the truth of modernist axioms privileging universal reason applied to private experience.
  • The scientific method intentionally denies the efficacy of combining truth and goodness claims and demands an act of severance that discourages premature closure to seek immediate utility for its judgments.
  • Empirical science may be distinguished from both pseudo-science and the human sciences by its reliance on falsifiability.
  • In the last decades of the nineteenth century, empirical science retreated from its expansive claims to knowledge not amenable to its method.
  • Natural science’s success and exclusivity shut out imitators that nevertheless seek to mimic its methodology and products to share in its prestige.
  • Because empirical science cannot produce moral truth, its success has failed to provide public moral guidance.
  • As the purest product of modernist axioms of commitment, empiricism’s failures have exacerbated a contemporaneous collapse of institutional authority and contributed to a moral vacuum after World War I.
  • Empiricism’s discoveries, methodologies, and technological products have eroded public reliance on common sense.
  • These failures have further expanded a reliance on private moral principles.
  • Because empirical science is the purest expression of modernist principles, it has been largely opposed by postmodernism that rejects the efficacy of universal reason and privileges private experience.
  • Though ordinary experience cannot duplicate science’s methodology, it can adapt certain elements to refine prudential reasoning, which can competently identify and justify moral goals.


  • The development of expertise depends upon a skill or subject’s degree of complexity and the practitioner’s capacity to distill the elements of the experience.
  • As a public warrant, expertise is less convincing than empirical science but more convincing than competence, undistilled experience, and authority.
  • Successful practice of empirical science engages many expert tasks, so the two warrants are frequently and mistakenly thought to be synonymous.
  • Experiences that are too variable or too unvarying are not open to the development of expertise.
  • Many human sciences claim empirical status, but none is fully empirical, although some enable expertise.
  • Moral expertise is not possible, though one can be an expert in a particular moral tradition just as one can be an expert in a particular aesthetic or religious tradition.
  • Expertise in judgments of quality or utility is possible and is improved by employing public standards of quality.
  • Coherentism denies the rational basis of expertise.
  • Expertise is a fundamentally different capability than authority; though all experts might be thought authoritative in their specialty, their expertise is independent of the trust of others.
  • Authority is in no way dependent on expertise, relying fully on the trust of the adherent.
  • In the collapse of authority following World War I, popular culture turned to expertise and human science for moral clarity; these sources utterly failed to provide it and further eroded its pursuit.

Reductionism for Dummies

  • To call a judgment “reductionist” carries a negative connotation, implying omission or oversimplification.
  • Every judgment is technically reductionist, for it must reduce attention to a single element of experience, separate its critical from its inessential components, correctly identify their relationship, and find the proper language to communicate what has been learned.
  • The empirical philosophers revealed the uncertainty of each step in the process of proper reductionism.
  • Romantic philosophers condemned the “murder by dissection” that reason requires.
  • Empirical science demonstrated the inadequacies of naïve analysis, otherwise called “common sense.”
  • Postmodern criticism frequently attacks judgments as reductionist, but it almost never defines what is lacking, a necessary subterfuge since its warrant cannot privilege any judgment as objectively superior.

 Stereotypes and Categories

  • Stereotyping” is a widely used but poorly understood term in contemporary life.
  • A stereotype may involve a false categorization or the insertion of an unsuitable element into a legitimate category.
  • Both kinds of stereotyping are erroneous and indicate the mental sloth properly called prejudice.
  • Postmodernism condemns stereotyping but its identity markers are invariably as stereotypical as the discriminatory stereotypes they seek to replace.
  • This confusion tempts postmodernists to try to avoid all categorizations for fear of stereotyping, but this robs them of a powerful rational tool of judgment.
  • Tribalism is a ubiquitous temptation to stereotyping.

Kind and Degree

  • The kind and degree distinction is a valuable tool of rational categorization.
  • The initial classification of “kind” determines the subsequent classifications of degree.
  • Categories having an equality of kind share fundamental similarities more determinative of their nature than their inequality of degree.
  • All persons share many equalities of kind more determinative of their identity than their existential inequalities of degree.
  • The human equality of kind is species-specific and needs-determinative.
  • All cultural distinctions are inequalities of degree when examined within the category of human personhood.
  • Our species-specific equality of kind as homo sapiens allows an historical, sociological, and biological typology of universal human needs that transcend those inequalities of degree that mark culture and individual as distinctive.

Our Freedom Fetish

  • Defining “liberty” as “the freedom to act without restraint” is an entirely inadequate definition.
  • To choose freely, persons must be presented with at least two options.
  • Natural freedom automatically presents options in particular experiences to consciousness.
  • Persons are entitled to natural freedom as a natural right.
  • Preferential freedom allows persons to choose the good by whatever standard of value they employ.
  • Preferential freedom confers human rights to persons exercising their rational agency and makes them worthy of radical respect in their interactions with other persons.
  • Preferential freedom confers moral responsibility as a universal equality of kind.
  • Persons may prefer goods on grounds of utility, quality, or morality.
  • Morality is a system of preference structured to secure chosen ends of preference.
  • Competent preference requires an act of severance by which the moral agent understands the experience she faces before allowing her natural freedom to identify goodness choices.
  • Finding truth must always be merely the means of choosing good.
  • Because engaging belief blurs the act of severance by instilling desire into our evaluation of the content of an experience, preferences involving beliefs necessarily introduce bias and preclude them from being judgments of moral goods.
  • Premodernists surrender their preferential freedom in an act of trust to an authority they think more capable of prescribing goods than they are.
  • Postmodernists zealously retain their moral agency and categorically have no compunctions about privileging their beliefs as private knowledge, but they invariably resent authority as an imposition on their freedom.
  • Because postmodernism’s goods are invariably private, they can prescribe no public means to resolve their conflicts short of coercion, and for this reason postmodernists are obsessive about power relationships and suspicious of institutional authority.
  • Political libertarians mistakenly think circumstantial freedom to be synonymous with justice and so they seek maximal liberty.
  • Laws concern circumstantial freedom.
  • Circumstantial freedom governs exemption-rights and claim-rights among strangers and between individuals and the state.
  • Public morality relies upon human rights based upon preferential freedom.

Authority Trust, Knowledge

  • As a warrant, authority must be distinguished from belief and expertise.
  • Trust definitionally requires a surrender of preferential freedom to authority.
  • We are all familiar with the processes of authority from our childhood.
  • Extending trust relies upon prior demonstrations of reliability and vastly simplifies morality.
  • Personal trust is necessary for loving relationships, but it is diluted in contemporary society or it oscillates with a distrust that prompts re-acquisition of agency.
  • Postmodernists distrust authority of any kind, thinking it corrosive of their freedoms and invariably coercive.
  • Postmodernists are particularly suspicious of institutional authority, thinking it responsible for past exploitations and deprivations.
  • It is an error to think authority can be imposed, for impositions of this kind destroy trust and devolve into pure power relationships.
  • Premodernists consider institutional authority formative of their identity; modernists consider it informative; postmodernists seek performative opportunities to demonstrate their independence.
  • Contemporary cultural conflicts over authority are traceable to the gradual erosion of religious authority as a universal warrant for all truth and goodness claims after the Reformation.
  • The utter collapse of institutional authority in the twentieth century has precipitated a moral crisis that postmodernism has sought to resolve, but it has failed because it cannot resolve conflicts of agency.
  • As a warrant for truth and goodness claims, authority is unique: initially it is quite powerful because the trust that enables it discourages doubt, but once doubt is entertained, authority has no means to sustain the trust that enabled it and therefore fails utterly.
  • Institutional authority is unlikely to be resurrected in the foreseeable future, and so it will not resolve our present moral crisis.

Knowledge, Trust, and Belief

  • To know is to have a grasp of the truth warranted by a rational consideration of a preponderance of evidence.
  • All knowledge is in some way dualist and in some way mimetic.
  • Synthetic knowledge is never certain.
  • Determining the true is the means to choosing the good.
  • The problem of specification is a serious impediment to choosing the good.
  • The human mind assembles sense data into a rational mimesis of reality.
  • Premature closure hastens the effort to know the truth so as to simplify goodness choices.
  • The operation of natural freedom is as automatic as the mind’s construction of sense data.
  • Moral choices are categorical, made without access to present experience; pragmatic choices are hypothetical, made in consideration of present experience.
  • Belief employs premature closure and disdains the act of severance that forces determinations of truth prior to those of goodness.
  • We don’t judge our beliefs true; we desire them to be true.
  • Because they are influenced by present desire, beliefs are unlikely to produce moral ends.
  • Plato defined knowledge as “justified, true belief,” but he expressed dissatisfaction with his definition.
  • In ordinary discourse, “belief” signifies uncertainty or obvious preference, but in religious creeds, “belief” signifies total commitment and certainty.
  • Trust and belief are entirely different kinds of cognitions, as are belief and knowledge.
  • According to modernist axioms of commitment, beliefs are projections of desire beyond knowledge.
  • Beliefs may be permissible or entailed; when judgments are justified they qualify as knowledge.
  • Postmodernism equates beliefs with knowledge because it views the perceptual wall as impenetrable; therefore, all knowledge is private knowledge potentially influenced by desire.
  • Differences among beliefs cannot be reconciled by reason, which explains postmodernists’ obsessions with impositions of power and the intractable disputes of contemporary religious believers.
  • Because authority can reconcile dispute, contemporary religious believers often mistake their beliefs, which are products of their own rational agency, as founded upon religious authority, which requires the surrender of their rational agency.
  • Despite its temptations, we cannot avoid beliefs, but it would be an error to think them the basis for further knowledge.

Correlation, Causation, Motivation

  • The maxim that “correlation is not causation” is a useful caution with which to examine the postmodern view of power.
  • Egoists assume that the satisfaction of every desire produces pleasure, and this pleasure motivates preferences.
  • Though pleasure is the consequence of the satisfaction of every preference, it is not necessarily its motive, so the correlation of pleasure with preference ought not be considered causative.
  • Similarly, the resolution of every conflict necessarily involves the expenditure of power, the term used in the sense of active effort, but this correlation ought not be thought the cause of resolution of conflict.
  • Postmodernists make this error because they have no theoretical mechanism to resolve goodness disputes since they reject categorical bases for determinations of goodness in favor of private belief.
  • Postmodernists’ obsession with disguised impositions of power suits the gnostic and psychoanalytic foundations of their theories.
  • Postmodern advocacy of rights and social justice cannot be reconciled with their axiom of commitment.

What Is the Virtual Circle?

  • Epistemological history has long honored such inner lights as intuition, insight, and inspiration, but these mechanisms for finding truth were expected to produce understandings subject to external verification.
  • The postmodern virtual circle differs in that it ignores externality in favor of an alignment of previously embraced truths producing a private schema of truth, goodness, and beauty.
  • Because postmodernists consider the perceptual wall to be impermeable and experience to be the maker of idiosyncratic reasoning, the principle of non-contradiction forms a very flexible and private truth test.
  • Postmodern justifications for the virtual circle are ad hoc adaptations of skeptical conclusions produced by modernist theorists.
  • Authority’s final collapse after World War I coincided with early attempts to define and defend the virtual circle on existentialist grounds.

One Postmodern Sentence

  • Postmodernist theory must obscure the crippling effects of its own suppositions, among them the contention that language is necessarily contingent, experience determinative of reasoning, and truth a private rather than a public possession.
  • Dissecting a single postmodern sentence is sufficient to reveal the obscurantism of its language, the universality of its contentions in violation of its axioms, the pseudo-scientific nature of its evidence, and the sustained contradictions of its method.

Postmodernism’s Unsettling Disagreements

  • The foundations of postmodernism were laid upon the sustained failures of institutional authority in the nineteenth century, the hypocrisies of modernism in the twentieth, and the gradual dominance of popular cultures.
  • Postmodernism’s nemeses are religious authority and objectivity as a privileged stance of modernist axioms of commitment.
  • Postmodernism has displayed a bipolar admiration for the methodology and work of the human sciences coupled with a rejection of the principles of scientific inquiry that the human sciences have mimicked.
  • Postmodernism has championed an alienist aesthetic as a moral desideratum, despite rejecting any universal moral claims.
  • Postmodernism between the wars championed existentialist opposition to popular cultures, but by the 1980’s, postmodernism had saturated popular cultures sufficiently to produce a shift in favor of cultural determinism.
  • Postmodernism has idealized equality as synonymous with justice despite its denial that either offers objective value.


  • Our mental operations engage a cycle of interpreting experience so as to offer preferences to choosing, nearly always for hypothetical utility, an operation that repeats itself continuously.
  • The sensation of awe interrupts this ordinary operation, producing a sense of uniqueness, intense interest, and disorientation.
  • Research indicates awe’s source to be the natural world, aesthetic products, human beauty, or religious intimations.
  • Immanuel Kant theorized that awe mirrors the “free play of the imagination” that characterizes artistic creation.
  • Religious mystics have mastered mental techniques to summon and extend sensations of awe.
  • Like spiritual intimations, awe’s contents are non-conceptual and therefore non-categorical.
  • Awe inspires a sense of holiness long associated with religious intimations of the divine.
  • Because it cannot be conceptually linked to knowledge, awe remains a spur to imagination and wonder rather than a subject of knowledge.